1. Most commonly missed leadership skill.
Most pastor’s don’t know how to deputize believers for ministry, get reports from them, give them feedback and reaffirm their vision so that they can keep their ministries effective, motivated and contributing to the whole.
2. Three characteristics: Leaders and Power
1) a key group of strong leaders.
2) a set of strategic objectives these leaders have accomplished and are accomplishing
3) a good match between lay leadership and staff
Kennon Callahan, 12 Keys to an Effective Church, 41
3. Leaders and achievement:
1) Leaders, not Enablers
“The time for leaders has come, the time for enablers has passed. In the churched culture of the 1950s, it was possible for the church to focus on developing enablers. In the unchurched culture of the 1980s it is decisively important that the church focus on developing leaders.” 41
Dysfunctional leadership–enablers–“the reactive, responsive, process-centered style of leadership present in many local congregations contributes significantly to those congregations being declining or dying congregations.” 42
“It is appropriate to focus both on process and on responsive considerations in any style of leadership. At the same time, it is decisive that leaders lead the congregation forward toward the thoughtful accomplishment and achievement of substantive objectives. That means that leaders are active as well as responsive. That means that leaders share their own sense of direction and vision as well as simply enabling others to share theirs.” 42
2) Complementary strengths: supportive, analytical, discerning, relational.
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3) Quality of objectives:
– strong ownership
– specific and measurable
– realistic time horizons
– concrete & achievable
– mutually reinforce one another in a complementary fashion
– few in number
4) Accomplishments, not Activities
The more activities a congregation has, the less likely it is to have strong leadership resources.
“There is some relationship between activities and accomplishments. This appropriate and limited relationship has to do with whether the activities move toward accomplishments. Too many churches plan, sponsor, and promote activities that have no direct correlation with any of the objectives and accomplishments toward which they are strategically headed. Activities should never been seen as ends in themselves. Activities are those critical events that advance toward the accomplishment of strategic objectives.” 43
5) Combination of competency of leadership skills and continuity of those skills–substantive leadership resources.
Primary focus: Not commitment but on competency, then compassion and then commitment. NB
Too many churches focus on who’s committed as they think about who they want to ask to serve in major leadership positions. It is more important to focus on who will be competent and compassionate and to some degree commitment.
Furthermore, churches rotate their leadership too frequently to achieve strong continuity of competent leaders. Myth–leaders want to rotate off from leadership positions at the end of three years. No responsible institution does this in any other field.
6) Ratio of 1 to 15 people in the congregation. Rule of thumb.
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7) Strong pastoral and staff leadership.
Major planning, policy, personnel, program and financial objectives and decisions that shape the future.
The pastor and staff who concentrate and focus on details lack strong leadership skills. It is the pastor who focuses on major objectives and major decisions having to do with the congregation’s strategic priorities that will make it possible to develop strong leadership.
8) Recognition and reward.
Positive reinforcement–the more negative reinforcement, the weaker the leadership.
9) Directions for development.
4. Directions for development
1) Balance between mission and leaders.
2) Discover the number of leaders in a congregation and then build a program and mission.
3) Match the competencies of the key leaders with solid responsibility and authority.
4) Look for key characteristics in people that indicate their competence and capacity to solid leaders.
5. Leadership is INFLUENCE, NOT TITLES.
A person who thinks he is leading but no one is following is only taking a walk.
A. HAVE INTEGRITY
B. LOVE TO WORK
C. MAKE A HIGHER LEVEL OF COMMITMENT
D. SERVE OTHERS
Mt 20:26–this is an attitude.
6. Leadership can be learned through fellowship.
cf Paul and his associates.
7. The quality of your leadership is largely determined by your philosophy of life.
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8. cf Staffing patterns for churches of various sizes, C. George
Multiple Staff Church
I. INFRASTRUCTURE AND LEADERSHIP
A. META-CHURCH INFRASTRUCTURE
1. Staff who sponsors and sustains a cell philosophy can take a larger responsibility for all leadership training without the system suffering from compartmentalization (99). cf Future, George, ch 9.
-major time investment into KL by staff.
-belief that leadership of cell is most strategic role in the church.
-pastoring is more important than teaching in a cell.
2. Key Leader (coach to cell leaders & their associates) is responsible for the leaders of 10 (cell).
-KL’s provide long-range stability.
-oversees 5 groups.
-itinerates regularly from group to group, not directing any meetings except in extraordinary circumstances.
-more manageable responsibility for pastoring (caring).
-associate cell leader is future cell leader.
-responsibility for multiplication of cell leaders.
cf. STEPHEN MINISTRIES, Kenneth Haugk, St. Louis, Mo.
But, operates on a para-clergy model. Therefore, most effect when it trains small group leaders.
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3. A DECENTRALIZED APPELLATE SYSTEM (121)
Ex 18:13-23,37–decentralized the meeting out of justice to the lowest level possible.
-regularized the nation
-redundancy of organization–no where in the structure does the span of control exceed a ratio of one to ten.
-cf JETHRO II chart, p. 123
X=over 10 people
L=over 5 cell leaders
C=leader of 100 (larger churches)
+congregation size (100) groups
+e.g.=adult Bible fellowships, departmental assemblies, single’s ministries, senior adult programs.
D=responsible for up to 10 L’s (full-time staff) and 5 C’s.
The D can supervise more than 10 if the following assumptions are in place:
-D spends 30-40 hours a week in visitation.
-the D must have stable C’s so that D-C supervisory meetings can be collective ones for planning purposes.
-most of the L’s oversee nurture groups; the more task forces with varying agendas represented, the fewer L’s one person can supervise.
-the D must have clerical assistance and, if possible, a lay understudy (Da).
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C’s and L’s run on separate accountability tracks, lest they compete with one another. They interact in only 2 ways:
a. See each other at leadership meetings, which involves all D’s, C’s, L’s, X’s, and sometimes apprentices.
b. The C’s allow their congregation-size groups to serve as “fishing pools” for the L’s and X’s with their apprentices to meet and recruit potential cell-group members. The C’s plan specific times of acquaintances-facilitating foursomes so that X’s and apprentices can have opportunities to build new relationships.
Retain as many extra group leaders as possible. The more trained leadership present, the more a church can grow. Historically, for every Sunday-school teacher or small-group leader commissioned, a church’s attendance average increased by 7 to 10.
Therefore, each D, C, L, and X will want to develop an apprentice. Da, Ca, La, Xa.
4. KEY TO THE ARCHITECTURE OF CARE: LISTENING.
People don’t feel cared for until someone has heard them. Feel valued.
No one can listen to a hundred voices with a quality listening. In fact, 10 is too great a number for someone to nurture. Therefore, the importance of Xa. cf charts 10,11 (127)
We need to unlink traditional roles from metacell nurture (the elder board which governs the church) and lay ministry (people who facilitate one-another caring). By doing so, the pool of potential caregivers will remain as large as possible. Otherwise, as soon as an organizational system correlates titles (pastor, elder, deacon) with cell-group leadership, a lot of God-given talent will go unused. (chart 12).
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5. DEVELOPING THE LEADERSHIP COMMUNITY
People can’t be lectured into leadership. Leadership formation cannot occur without on-the-job coaching by someone to whom the leadership trainee is willing to be responsible.
Three functions need to occur (the VHS MEETING):
Twice-a month gathering of D’s, Da’s, C’s, Ca’s L’s, La’s, X’s, and Xa’s for a three-fold purpose:
Brief time of worship; get a handle on where they are headed. Help people to know that they are the primary care people in that church for those people. Remind them that they have fully permission to be fully used of God.
II. CHARACTERISTICS OF LEADERSHIP THAT GOD USES
A. GOD USES A PERSON WITH A DREAM/VISION.
-If we do not have a goal, that is a goal by default
1. Nothing happens until someone starts dreaming
2. A church never outgrows the vision of the leaders
3. You cannot delegate primary vision
-The person over the organization must set the goals
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4. Goals are statements of faith.
-Question: “What would I attempt for God if I could not fail?”
-Big thinking attracts big thinkers.
1) How long a person stays in a ministry
2) How many people in ministry area
3) Spiritual gifts
-Two common mistakes in goal setting:
1) Set goals too low
2) Try to reach them too fast
-we over estimate what we can do in one year
-we under estimate what we can do in twenty years
5. The differences between winners and losers is attitude
6. We make a mistake when we compare ourselves with others.
+Always someone doing a better job–we get discouraged
+Always someone doing a worse job–we get proud
B. GOD USES A PERSON WHO IS WILLING TO RISK FAILURE
1. Three types of people:
a. Risk taker
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2. Fear of failure debilitates
-failure is not failing to reach a goal but failing to set a goal
3. Goals are based on what you believe God can do, not what you can do.
-Four words on tombstone: “At least he tried”
4. Key: get God’s total vision for your situation.
1) What. God’s vision of what he intends to do.
2) How. God’s way is usually totally different from our ways.
3) Why. The timing. God’s timing is perfect.
-Don’t pray: Bless what I am doing
-Instead pray: Help me to do what you are blessing.
-Don’t be afraid to go out on a limb–because that is where the fruit is.
C. GOD USES THE PERSON WHO EXPECTS THE CHURCH TO GROW.
–Mt 9:29–You get to choose how much God will bless you.
-Never let an impossible situation to intimidate you.
-Today’s impossible situation are just tomorrow’s opportunities.
-Expect people to help you.
Great people are ready to help us in the right way at the right time. Ps 37:5.
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D. GOD USES THE PERSON WHO NEVER GIVES UP.
-Oak tree is a little nut that refuses the give ground.
-Failure is never final until you give up.
-Jerry Falwell–“You do not determine a man’s greatness by his wealth, gift, etc, but by what it takes to discourage him.
2. Great people are ordinary people with an extraordinary sense of
determination. Persistence is another word for faith.
E. GOALS/DREAMS AND PRIDE
1. How do we have big dreams without a big head?
-God judges pride quicker than anything.
1) We will be criticized unjustly.
-Only way not to be criticized: do nothing, be nothing, say nothing.
-They never make statutes to critics!
-Within the criticism look for the ground of truth
2) Problems will come into your ministry that can only be solved by prayer. God will force us to depend upon Him.
3) We will make stupid mistakes.
-Just because we are God’s men doesn’t make us perfect.
4) God has given us a dream that is so big that we are bound to fail if we do it by ourselves.
-Most churches can be explained away by a balanced budget & a standard SS, nothing supernatural is happening.
-Is it harder for God to humble us or motivate us?
-What are we expecting God to do in our ministries?
-We are the biggest bottleneck for God to work in a big way!!
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III. THE KEY LEADER IN RELATION TO AN ORGANISM
A. THE LEADER IN AN ORGANISM
The Key Leader must:
1. Conform to emerging ideals of the organism.
2. Have creative programs to meet needs.
3 Minister to the body.
4. Place leadership under him according to gifts.
5. Exercise life by activities.
B. ELEMENTS OF A CHURCH ORGANISM
– Values are unseen but DETERMINE what you do.
– Powerfully influence the COMPATIBILITY of people and groups.
– Determine the ideas, principles and concepts a person or a group can accept, assimilate, remember and transmit WITHOUT DISTORTION.
– Grow out of values
– More visible than values
– Erected to give VISIBLE FORM TO VALUES
(worship, fellowship, minister, train, send)
– Rest on priorities
– Skills, attitudes, activities, which keep the church growing.
– Individual skills but a corporate effect.
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– Those who labor in the superstructure are:
bounded by the values,
supported by the priorities,
sustained by the practices.
-Not all adapt to the superstructure–they need to be oriented to thevalues , priorities and practices of the church.
II Tim 2:2
Faithful men who are able
– Designed to accomplish something specific in relation to the whole.
– Not permanent fixtures.
– The point where values, priorities and practices BECOME VISIBLE.
– The point where we TOUCH OTHERS
– An indication of what is TRULY BELIEVED
– Limited by the degree to which important practices have become
PART OF THE LIVES of people.
– Must change as CONDITIONS CHANGE.
– Need to move toward GIFT-BASED programming.
– PROBLEM: moving into skills without change in KNOWLEDGE AND ATTITUDE.
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IV. RECRUITMENT OF KEY LEADERS
1. IDENTIFY LEADERSHIP–select; Mk 1:16-17
They must be:
a. Philosophically attuned.
b. Positive volition to minister
c. Godly and mature.
d. Natural leaders.
e. Gifted for leadership.
f. Initiative with organizing and direction abilities.
g. Motivated or willing to be motivated.
h. Emotionally stable.
p. Be able to interact with a ministry team.
q. Nearing the height of his potential–seasoning.
s. Committed to the Word.
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a. Note the level of leadership in relation to their potential.
Good leadership always breeds leadership. The effective xn administrator has the task of assessing and recording how well each worker performs his present position and what kind of ability he demonstrates for other more difficult tasks.
b. Look at their qualifications and personality strengths.
An effective leader must start with what a man can do rather than what the job requires.
c. Know them enough to see their desires (what they like to do and are comfortable with).
d. Distinguish between genuineness and opportunism.
e. Build GENUINE RELATIONSHIP with them: communicate, play and pray together.
f. Gain THEIR TRUST.
g. Draw out LATENT leadership abilities.
h. Be aware that certain people naturally lead only certain types/groups of people.
i. Motivate people to follow a particular type of leader.
Effective identification of leaders:
1) Focus your time and energy to equip current leaders and develop future leaders.
Gordon MacDonald’s 4 kinds of people:
a) VIP= very important people (current leaders)
b) VTP= very teachable people (future leaders)
c) VNP= very nice people
d) VDP= very draining people
(many pastors spend the majority of time with
these; they cry the loudest)
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2) Select and recruit people with leadership potential.
3) Agree on areas for training and development.
Map out a plan for growth.
4) Recognize the dynamics of an effective training process.
People learn in a mosaic pattern, according to felt needs, not in a linear manner.
The traditional training sequence: orient, involve, equip is wrong! People learn in the context of doing.
Training is a four-step process:
-I do, you watch (observation and model
-I do, you help (limited participation)
-You do, I help (assist, evaluate)
-You do, I watch (fully trained, encourage)
5) Schedule regular appointments for ongoing reporting, encouragement, and accountability.
Assignment, assistance, accountability and applause
2. Let people know:
a) the VISION we have,
b) the GOALS we want to reach,
Human beings perform more effectively if they know what is expected of them. If a person can see a tangible, achievable and challenging goal, he is more likely to reach it.
Without objectives, activities have little meaning. Objectives give direction and purpose. MBO (management by objectives) determines which activities should be performed and provide criteria for evaluating how well they are being implemented.
There are two ways to formulate objectives:
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1) TOP DOWN PROCESS
This originates at the decision-making level. It then trickles down through the total church structure.
This begins with the staff then moves down to MIDDLE LEVEL LEADERS. They in turn in each area of service determine specific objectives for their areas within the confines of the broader general objectives set for the total church by top level leaders. Finally, SERVICE LEVEL LEADERS AND WORKERS determine activity–oriented objectives for each phase of their organization. These objectives should further the accomplishment of the specific objectives outlined by middle level leaders within the framework of objectives determined by top level leaders.
2) BASE-UP PROCESS
For this base-up process to benefit the total church, workers at the bottom must be totally aware of the organized structure and purpose of each area of service. Mass confusion and branching out may result. When used properly it involves all levels of works in the ministry.
PRINCIPLES INFLUENCING OBJECTIVES:
If an objective is not acceptable, an atmosphere for developing team spirit, mutual supportiveness, and trust are not likely to occur. Instead, suspicion and resentment tend to increase as people fight the objective. We cannot simply tell someone to do something and expect full-level achievement.
An objective must be attainable within a reasonable period of time. By setting measurable goals, it is possible to determine when and to what degree the objective was achieved. There should be a realistic balance between the attainable and stretching to attain more. Objectives that are too simple or too difficult are often discouraging. Feedback is important here.
Objectives must be compatible with the interests of the individual as well as the needs of the organization. It is important that the individual establish personal goals within the main objective.
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The principle of measurability builds in a sense of accountability.
Simplicity increases the possibility of its effectiveness. Packaging is important here. EG=signal caller rather than a ball carrier–he needs to know where the goal line is.
Progress and problems with an objective must be communicated on a continual basis to all concerned with its achievement.
c) The PLANS to achieve them.
Our people need to be familiar with the NEED to be met and the JOB to be filled (& how).
3. TRAIN IN REAL LIFE SITUATIONS, Mk. 2-3.
The disciples LIVED with Jesus=relationships
We need to develop a REAL LIFE INSTITUTE as a whole in EACH DEPARTMENT.
a. FORMAL training–classroom and formal in-service training.
b. INFORMAL experiential training–FEEDBACK as they minister.
c. MODELLING– observation.
GOAL–informed, articulate and skilled in task.
Key leaders need an ACCURATE PICTURE of the task;
– Write out job definition and training requirements.
– Make clear the involvement and time commitment you expect
– Let them know the cost.
– Bring them GRADUALLY to a commitment.
People have a GREATER THIRST for training as the NEED ARISES (Learning climate).
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4. DEPLOY, Mk 10:1-15
This is to STATION THEM SYSTEMATICALLY (extended front)
-administration and placement to carry out the goal.
-their gifts for the goal should be clear.
-this takes discernment.
a. Let them OBSERVE you and then get FEEDBACK as to what they observed (or observe another key leader). MODEL
b. Let them DO IT WITH YOU (bonding between staff and key leader).
c. Let them DO IT WHILE YOU WATCH.
d. LEAVE THEM–DELEGATE AUTHORITY.
5. MONITOR (supervise), Lk 10-20. (encourage and retrain)
a. CONTINUE to get feedback
b. Give EVALUATION.
c. CLARIFY, STATE AND RESTATE what is expected of them
d. Show or tell them why THEY ARE IMPORTANT TO THE MINISTRY (nurture).
-Show them how they fit into the larger scheme of things.
-They need to feel part of the team.
V. CRITERIA FOR KEY LEADERSHIP (QUALITY of leadership)
1. Does he/she worship, Jn 4:21-24; I Pet 2:9
2. Love for others, Jn 13:34-35;. and God 14:15
3. Knowledge of the Word and trust in it, II Pet 3:18
4. Righteousness (not legalism), Mt 5:20,21-48 (internal)
5. Servant heart (humility), Mk 18:1-4; 5:5;. Lk 22:24-27.
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6. Loyalty, Eph 6:21; Col 4:7f; Phm 24.
a. Full regular attendance and participation.
b. Financial support.
c. Faithful to duties and expectations.
d. Good relationships with other members.
e. Identify with group (“us” not “them”)
7. Risk taking, Mt 25:14-30.
8. Generosity, Mk 12:41-43
9. It is a mistake to make someone a leader in order to strengthen his commitment to the group. Instead, he will become committed to being a leader; if things don’t work out, he will leave, demoralizing everyone.
l0. Similarly, avoid those who make their membership contingent upon being placed into leadership. A person who “needs” to be a leader for the sake of his personal identity is not in the best place for leadership.
11. ROLE CHANGE for the staff person is imperative to make this kind of leader.
VI. RELATIONAL TRAINING
1. “Hot” learning climate–awareness/expectations and hands-on.
2. HOT HOUSE development–information+relationship x time=discipleship.
3. NOT SIMPLY SCHOOL MODEL
I.E. MASTERY OF DATE in a COOL CLIMATE (i.e.–not expectation of doing it immediately and little hands-on experience). What could be “hot house” learning (i.e. given the time factor) is cooled by lack of relationships and hands-on experience.
SCHOOL MODEL FORMULA: information + limited relationships x time = discipleship.
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4. Two summaries
a. Summary #1.
1) Do the ministry yourself.
2) Find others to watch you (the right people)
3) Let them do the ministry as you watch
-an insecure time because of UNCERTAINTY
-teachable spirit is important
4) Let them do the ministry
-continue education by case reviews and new training material.
5) Transfer leadership responsibility to other people (let them send out other people, reporting back to the new leader).
-more a relational contact point
b. Summary #2
1) Make them aware of their gifts/potential for leadership
-Be clear that you are now moving them toward leadership–don’t trick them.
2) Basic training
-Read helpful books, articles
-Audio/video cassettes about leadership
-Personalize instruction pertaining to the leadership role
4) Give them real-life experiences in gradual doses
5) Train them.
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6) Show them how to do it, have them do it themselves
-experience is a great teacher
-BUT SOLD experiences can be brutal when you see the “sink” and “swim” approach, many will in fact SINK.
-Pastoral epp….reflect a “coaching” type of relationship
-First have them come and watch you, then you go and watch them
-Either show them yourself or point them to someone who is a good model
7) Maintain observation and feedback
-Continue to observe or get a good report
-Regular evaluation, encouragement, correction, further instruction and coaching.
8) Make them part of the team
-Greater pool of experience
1. Why do some leaders fail to delegate?
-fear of the unknown
-afraid to give up authority
-delegatee will not perform at the same level of competence.
-leader does not want to spend the necessary time
(In the initial stage, delegation does take more than doing the task oneself. Making the consignment, issuing reminders, checking and double-checking results, make the task difficult. But delegation is not an EXPENDITURE of time. It is an INVESTMENT).
-fear of competition from subordinates
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-fear of losing recognition
-fear that weaknesses will be exposed
2. Tasks that cannot be delegated:
-Items assigned in a job description.
-If the basis and authority of the delegation is not clear.
-Something which belongs to someone else’s area of authority.
3. DEGREE of delegation
In one sense delegation must carry with it the authority to carry out the consigned task. Certainly the task and its authority constitute a responsibility, and to that extent responsibility is delegated. In another sense, however, the leader can never delegate ULTIMATE responsibility.
This issue has to do with the AMOUNT OF AUTHORITY passed on with the consigned task. The greater the authority give, the higher the degree of delegation. Without authority subordinates will be severely handicapped in the execution of their duties.
Four degrees of delegated authority:
a. EXECUTIVE authority–full authority to see the task through to its completion.
b. REPORTING authority–the delegatee is responsible for undertaking the task but must report to his supervisor at predetermined points in the execution process.
c. RECOMMENDING authority–the supervisor delineates a problem to his subordinate and asks for some suggestion of the way he would handle it. Before any action is taken, the delegatee responds to his superior by indicating what he proposes to do in the situation. If his course of action meets with the approval of the supervisor, he is then allowed to go ahead and carry it out.
Reporting is also a part of this level of delegation, but the essential difference is that the report is given BEFORE any action that is taken.
d. OBSERVING authority–observe and offer an opinion on it.
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4. GUIDELINES FOR EFFECTIVE DELEGATION:
a. Choose qualified people.
b. Exhibit confidence.
c. Make duties clear.
d. Do not give methods.
The delegatee may do things differently. Obviously at times it may be necessary to say that the end does not justify the means.
e. Set up controls.
Set up controls to pinpoint difficulties at an early stage.
f. Give praise and credit
5. Four basic ideas in delegation:
a. Transfer of work.
b. Transfer of authority.
c. Acceptance of responsibility.
d. Importance of follow-up and accountability.
6. Benefits of delegation:
a. Improved understanding between levels.
b. Improved leader–follower relationships.
c. Increased job satisfaction and morale.
d. Leader has eased job pressures.
e. Leader increases time for broader functions.
f. Delegated authority gives the subordinate a chance to show what they can do.
g. This increases the motivation of subordinate.
SUMMARY: delegation must include responsibility, authority and accountability. Failure to delegate is an emotional problem, not a rational one.
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7. STAFF AND DELEGATION
a. Staff need to pass ministry on (give authority through delegation) to key leaders
-delegation does not mean abdication of responsibility
The primary purpose of delegation is to develop people, not to get rid of work!
-proper delegation involves ongoing management
-determine what you cannot delegate:
+responsibility to correct or discipline
+tasks that involve confidential information
+responsibility to create and maintain morale
-levels of delegation:
+do it and don’t report back
+do it and report back immediately
+do it and report routinely
+investigate and make recommendations to me, and we will decide together
+gather data for me, and I will decide
-avoid reverse delegation
b. Staff need to establish accountability especially among the key leaders
-this means regular accountability sessions
+feedback enables leaders to “bear fruit” more abundantly
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+a regular time, with an evaluation form where the person is both affirmed and given suggests of improvement (both honesty and sensitivity are crucial for this to work; this can be a beautiful tool of communication); also deadlines for development should be established; this is discipleship–individual, customized development of a leader
Note appendix: Leadership Evaluation Form
c. Developing key leaders includes identifying, enlisting, training, placing, supporting and rewarding
VIII. KEY LEADERS AND THEIR GROUP(S)
-A cell group is a “leader-breeder”
-It is important to widen the LEADERSHIP BASE for a large congregation.
A. Leadership qualities:
1. Capable, God-fearing men who can be trusted, Ex 18:21: I Tim 3:1-7, Tit 1:5-11.
2. Able to develop INTER-PERSONAL RELATIONSHIPS.
-he must be secure in himself
-not feel threatened by criticism
-able to evaluate himself and the group.
-relaxed and restrained; calm, poised and objective.
-loving concerned for everyone in the group
-understanding, generous attitude which covers the faults of others
-sensitive to “atmosphere”
-able to display tact and apply “antifreeze” to thaw out a situation.
-he recognizes the HOW one says things is as important as WHAT is said.
-vitality and enthusiasm which rubs off on others in the group.
-humble and teachable.
-appreciative of the contributions made by everyone in the group.
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B. Leadership tasks:
1. The complexity of the leadership role is often masked by the smallness of the group.
2. The leader’s prime task is to enable the group to come together to achieve the objectives for which it has been established.
-define clearly the nature of the tasks to be undertaken.
-establish rapport between members.
-sensitivity to the feelings and attitudes of others.
-encourages input from others.
-looks out for private feuds, red herrings or the emergence of hidden agenda’s which might subvert the purpose of the group.
-calms the argumentative, restrains the over-talkative and spots the sky person.
-when the pace slackens he fires the group with a fresh idea or a provocative question.
-not embarrassed by periodic silences for the incubation of new ideas.
-discourages sloganism and unnecessary repetitions.
C. Assistant leaders should be in training with all existing leaders.
D. Groups are the building blocks of church structures:
1. When a group includes twenty to thirty or more individuals, the DYNAMICS CHANGE.
-A small group reaches an optimum point when:
a. The group is composed of an odd, rather than an even number of people.
b. The group includes five or seven persons
c. The group has a clearly identified leader.
d. The leader has a high level of competence in leading small groups.
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e. The meeting place is of the appropriate size for the group.
f. Everyone feels free to participate actively in group discussions.
g. The members do not feel compelled to engage in what to some of them is excessive participation–a point reached with five or seven persons.
2. The basic and most important reward for attendance for members of the small group usually is in being together.
3. In a well-managed small group, a large part of the cohesive and unifying force that holds that collection of individuals together is the close relationship of those individuals to one another.
4. Humor and music are essential lubricants in the management of the large group unless the unity and cohesiveness is based on organizing against the enemy in which cases humor may be omitted.
5. The small group may be able to function very effectively for two to three hours at a stretch with a heavy emphasis on verbal communication and with little or no emphasis on visual communication. The large group, however, rarely can function for more than ten consecutive minutes AS A GROUP if the total emphasis is on one-way verbal communication with the exception of an excellent speaker.
6. The small group can function very effectively for a long period of time without a project or task or any reference to the needs of people outside the group. A large group has great difficulty functioning for any period of time if the focus is completely on the members of the group.
7. NB= There is a great difference between a small group and a large group in the EXPECTATIONS BY THE GROUP OF THE LEADER OR LEADERS.
Small group=a far greater responsibility rests on the leadership.
THE BASIC POINT is that each leader usually responds on the basis of his or her own competence, value system, and priorities, not on the basis of the expectations of the group.
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The person who is highly skilled and comfortable in working with small groups, but who has little or no experience in working with large groups naturally will encourage dividing a large assemblage of people into small groups.
The large group has a different set of expectations of the leader than those held by a small group.
The large group expects the leader to:
a. Define the agenda.
b. Set the schedule.
c. Adhere very closely the announced agenda and schedule.
d. Determine the pace at which the group will move.
e. Adjust the schedule or agenda in response to the changing mood of the group.
f. Exercise a strong initiating leadership role.
g. Care for minor details in regard to the meeting and functioning of the group “without bothering the participants” with these details.
h. Manage any conflict that may emerge among the members of the group.
i. Display a comparatively high level of competence at anticipating and planing for the immediate future.
j. Demonstrate the ability to function in a strong leadership role when the situation suddenly requires a strong leader.
k. Exhibit a contagious sense of humor.
l. Possess an above-average level of competence in verbal skills.
m. Adjourn the meeting on, or slightly ahead of schedule.
In general, the larger and/or the LESS COHESIVE the group, the greater the EXPECTATIONS the members have for the leader to exercise a strong, initiating, and DIRECTIVE LEADERSHIP STYLE.
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8. The work load of the leader varies with 1) the size of the groups in an organization 2) the leadership style of the leader.
9. The skills required for the effective management of small groups can be communicated from one person to another very easily. The varieties of gifts and competencies required for the effective management of large groups, however, are FAR MORE DIFFICULT to identify, to communicate and to learn.
l0. The larger the group, the more vulnerable it is to institutional deterioration when there is a change in the leadership.
11. The capability of a group to assimilate new members also is related to its size
-When a group doubles its size, it is no longer the same group. People find it easy to drop out.
-One major exception is the group which has a specific, attainable, measurable, visible, satisfying and unifying goal which requires more hands to accomplish the task.
12. Group maintenance.
The larger the group, the more extensive the need to systematically intentionally maintain a sense of unity, cohesiveness and common purpose.
The NATURE of group maintenance needs change as the size of the group rises above a score or more of members.
13. The internal pressures on the members to respond to group goals are comparatively strong in small groups and diminish as the group increases in size.
In other words, DEPERSONALIZATION increases as the size of the group rises, although a basic reason for creating small groups is the AFFIRM THE DISTINCTIVE IDENTITY of each person.
E. Alternatives to management of the group:
1. Manage the group life in a manner that is consistent with the value system and goals of the leader.
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2. Default on leadership and encourage or allow one or more individuals in the group to lead the group in accordance with their values and goals.
F. Two types of groups:
1. Task-oriented groups.
2. Relational groups.
IX. MOVING THE KEY LEADER BEYOND STASIS TO A DYNAMIC CATALYST
A. Too much of the onus for growth is dependent upon us as a staff.
1. Are our key leaders taking the responsibility to encourage, organize, motivate and lead in bringing more people into their ministry?
2. Does our key leadership depend upon us for initiative?
3. Does our key leadership feel free to take initiative?
B. The staff who is interested in progress should FOCUS ON MANAGING IDEAS.
1. Man has great creative potential and creativity is linked closely to leadership.
2. Key leaders must VIEW THEMSELVES AS THE DETERMINERS of their ministry.
3. In order for them to take the initiative they need to learn how to be CREATIVE.
Def= Creativity is the making of something new or the rearranging of something old.
4. The organization that focuses on using the creativity of its people will discover workable solutions to its problems.
-It will find new and better ways of accomplishing its tasks.
-Productivity will increase as a result.
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5. People need the OPPORTUNITY to use their creativity.
-tradition hinders the effective use of creativity.
An organization travels through a life cycle such like that of a person. All man-made organizations are born, go through infancy reach maturity, enter old age, and eventually die.
In infancy an organization seeks to develop good, workable methods for accomplishing its goal. Ironically, as time goes by there is a tendency for the METHOD TO BECOME THE GOAL. Thus, during the maturity process the original mission, goal, or objective of an organization is slowly replaced by a new goal–maintaining the traditions of the method. This hastens the organization’s aging process.
During the “old age” cycle of organizational life, virtually all innovation and creativity ceases. The organization rests comfortably on its past record of success, and all organizational energy is spent maintaining and protecting traditions. After all, they were responsible for the organization’s achievement.
-cf. parable of the Talents:
a. God expects the abilities and creativity of individuals to be utilized.
b. When an individual makes a contribution, he should be given recognition for his effort.
6. People need to be needed.
-Much of an individual’s sense of self-worth comes from m contributing to other needs of his group or organization.
-A good leader not only realizes people need to be needed, he makes sure all of those in his group organization have an opportunity to use their skills, abilities, and creativity.
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C. Causes of distorted individual/organizational relationships:
The individual does not correctly perceive their roles.
The individual can only properly relate to the institution when its organizational factors have demonstrated clarity of purpose and specification of responsibility for all personnel.
This can infringe on an individual’s worth.
Institutionalism is bureaucracy taken one step further. Rather than utilizing the abilities of the individual for the smooth functioning of the organization as in bureaucracy, institutionalism completely subordinates the concerns of the individual to the goals of the institution.
The individual will exercise self-direction and self-control in the service of OBJECTIVES TO WHICH HE IS COMMITTED.
D. A productive environment produces dynamics.
1. The staff is responsible for the needs of the key leader.
a. His own attitude toward the leader is important.
b. His use of authority.
c. Response to mistakes and failures.
d. Willingness to give the leader proper credit.
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2. For the staff person to apply a biblical philosophy of leadership he must:
a. Create a trust relationship between himself and the leader.
1) Trust BEGINS with the staff person.
2) Trust builds confidence and stimulates production.
b. Give decision-making power to him.
c. Turn failures and mistakes into positive learning experiences.
1) Fear of failure stifles creativity and reduces productivity.
2) Fear of failure reduces the willingness to risk.
3) Failures can become positive learning experiences.
When failure occurs the staff person should:
a) Meet with the leader and determine the cause.
b) Work with him to determine what should have been done to avoid the mistake and what needs to be done to correct it.
c) Let the leader who failed do the project or activity again in order to make proper corrections.
d) Constantly give proper recognition to the leader for his accomplishments.
1) Recognition demonstrates that you need and appreciate his contributions.
2) Recognition motivates people to volunteer their services.
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1. Def= infuse eagerness to perform effectively.
2. Everyone is motivated, however, the key is to become motivated toward the SAME GOALS. So GOAL SHARING is essential to motivation.
THIS IS THE STARTING POINT.
a. GOAL OWNERSHIP produces self-motivation.
b. Goals come at all levels.
c. Essential point: There is a cause why people act–their value systems.
-This cause is complex
-Motivation is INSEPARABLY LINKED TO PERSONAL GOALS
-Motivation is dependent upon information
3. The local church has probably one of the most complex problems of motivation of any kind of organization in the world.
b. 2 major conflicting purposes:
1) Send them to work.
2) Build them up and nurture them.
3) Accepts anyone into the organization regardless of talents, financial condition, etc.
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4. What motivates people?
-technical supervision or competent superior
-human relations quality of supervision
-organizational policy and administration
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6. “Provided” motivation or motivation by guilt is anti biblical.
a. 2 assumptions:
1) Most of us have the ability to respond creatively to what we perceive as abnormal behavior.
-We tend to mislabel normal and predictable behavior as “bad” and make people feel guilty.
2) Guilt is rarely a creative method for motivating people.
– One method of reducing the use of guilt in motivating people is to recognize that certain patterns of individual and institutional behaviour are normal and predictable, even though these patterns do not coincide with our “oughts” and “shoulds” or what we desire to happen.
b. STRUCTURING IN GUILT
1) Ask leaders to initiate their own termination date.
-For some people this is very easy.
-For some this is not. They feel guilty about being able to meet the expectations–so they find it easier to drop out completely rather than continuing at a lower level of participation.
2) Use guilt as motivating factor in causing members to accept a job in the church when that person insists they do not have the competence or time for that responsibility.
3) Articulate goals in vague terms without precisely identifying who is responsible for meeting that goal.
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c. Approaches to motivation:
E.G.=sports–evaluation of performance
2) Terminal date
-no “lifetime” sentences
-from past experiences
5) Theories X and ;Y
X=reward and punishment
Y=encouragement through participation
6) THE GRACE PRINCIPLE
X. LEADERSHIP TRAINING
A. The death knell of any organization is to defy the need for raising the skill level of its people.
1. People learn to be leaders, therefore, they need TIME to develop.
2. Unfortunately most training is directed more to a person’s gaining skills than to the ability to influence others through leadership.
-both are needed.
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-Jesus and his disciples
-Paul plus Timothy, Silas, Titus, Barnabas
-Moses and Joshua
C. Establishing a climate
1. Ability to lead depends largely upon previous experience with leadership attempts, because the leader TRANSFERS LEARNING from what he has done before to the new task.
a. The principle of APPRECIATION plays a significant role in the process of leadership development.
b. The positive transfer of learning facilitates the leadership performance.
-The more a new leadership situation is like previous ones, the more the behavior patterns which may be transferred.
e.g. = from piano to organ as over against trombone to organ.
c. NEGATIVE TRANSFER of learning is detrimental to performance.
-Negative learning transference can happen when a new situation is different from the leader still carries over old behavior patterns that fit his former role.
e.g.= home spun pastor in country moves into city.
2. Six areas that influence leadership:
b. Total church program
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c. Individual classroom
-teaching methodology and atmosphere are significant factors here.
d. Christian school
f. Training programs per se
D. Constructing a program.
1. Definition = Leadership training is to make sure that the nature and mission of the church is clear, establishing the functions of leadership in the light of the nature and mission of the church, and selecting and nurturing persons to do them.
a. Inventory of possible leaders
b. Audit of all tasks
d. Framework of supervision
e. A program of supervision
f. Leadership courses
a. Coaching – a personal approach; one to one
-This should be systematic and personal.
b. Consultant – a specialist to direct a training program.
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c. Apprenticeship – new leaders are trained by watching and helping experienced leaders.
e. Local Bible Colleges
f. Correspondence courses
g. Regular training classes
h. Workers conferences
j. In-service training
4. A competent person, staff or lay, should be in charge of the administration of leadership.
a. Personality cultivation
b. Ability to influence others
c. Public-speaking courses (this can greatly increase their persuasiveness)
6. Internship–probationary placement.
-involves formal study of history and objectives.
-this requires careful supervision and continuous contacts with the person.
-any personal interviews with those of high potential is vital.
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7. Measuring development
a. The volume of work done by the group of which he is the leader.
b. The quality of work done by the group.
c. The stability of membership in the group.
d. The number of complaints or grievances.
e. The opinion of the members of the group as to their own state of mind in relation to dealing with the leaders.
E. I believe our present need is to SIMPLIFY in a communication sense our training programs so that a person may see clearly where he fits even if he is new to the church.
e.g. = Maxwell
XI. COMPONENTS IN THE LEADERSHIP MANAGEMENT CYCLE
1. Define target population segment
2. Sense needs
3. Devise offers
Cycle: Vision target population
B. COMMUNICATE VISION
The vision cast must be meaningful to the following 3 groups:
1. Sponsors (time, energy, money)
2. Agents (convert what is offered ((#1)) to target population)
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3. Target population
C. ESTABLISH CONSENSUS (process)
1. Pilot before adopt
2. Appoint before elect
3. Sample opinion before vote
(majority will come later)
This is the issue of positioning–they need to understand that they need help from you. They need to recognize that you are a source of help.
1. Permission to give guidance
People will wait for you to ask, especially those who are trained professionally even though they have a willingness to operate.
2. Permission to receive guidance from them.
Trust them in leading you in areas which they are the most informed.
3. Avoid burnout from non-giftedness
Don’t give honor to an individual for the sake of affirming the person as a person. Occasionally we put people in the wrong position.
E. COORDINATE AGENTS
Doesn’t get into the game, occasionally models, but the coach builds the passion.
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Notice what is going on.
Most people need this. Tend not to correct quickly enough and then deal too severely. Correct the first offense.
1. Affirm persons
2. Affirm values
3. Set expectations