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Read Introduction to 1 Peter


“or to governors, as to those who are sent by him for the punishment of evildoers and for the praise of those who do good.”
or to governors
The Roman governor was subordinate to the Emperor. The Caesar appointed the providential governors. The job of the Roman governor of a Roman province was to curb those who were unprincipled and lawless. The Caesars appointed the governors for the good of the providence. They maintained law
In Palestine, the governor was Pontius Pilate. He was sent from Rome to have jurisdiction over Israel in occupied Palestine. Pontius Pilate permitted the Savior’s execution. 
as to those who are sent by him for the punishment of evildoers
If the government does not punish evildoers, they will become more and more brazen
God has never revoked capital punishment since it was instituted in Genesis 9:6,
Whoever sheds s blood,
By man his blood shall be shed;
For in the image of God
He made man.”
A man who deliberately murders someone else in the first degree (premeditated) comes under God’s principle of capital punishment. God also invoked capital punishment for adultery, sex perversion, and parental attack in the Old Testament. Under Israel’s law, it was a tooth for tooth, an eye for an eye. This approach seems harsh to a society that has lost its moral fiber. We live in a generation without adequate standards. On that day, the juvenile delinquent became a corpse. There were very few juvenile delinquents. It does not take long to get the message across.
When the government ceases to punish evildoers, the government becomes part of the problem. Poor government will result. When there is more sympathy for the offender than for the victim, this is a perversion in government. The government shirks its responsibility to punish those who break the law. 
and for the praise of those who do good
Another role of the government is to affirm those who do well. “Do good” means those who customarily do good. One who does “good” is one who benefits others. 
A country without adequate law will become a country of anarchy.
Any kind of government is better than anarchy. The Bible does not sponsor anarchy. Slander or undermining of the state is not a Christian value.