“The book of the genealogy of Jesus Christ, the Son of David, the Son of Abraham:”
There are four gospels with a different emphasis in each:
Matthew wrote to the Jews,
Mark to the Romans,
Luke to the Gentiles, and
John to everyone.
There are extensive quotations from the Old Testament in Matthew, more than in any other gospel.
Matthew began his book with a presentation of the ancestry of Jesus Christ (1:1-17) because of its strategic argument for the Messiah. Matthew presented the genealogy of Joseph, and Luke presented the genealogy of Mary (Lu 3). Thus, we have both a legal line and the blood line of Jesus. Matthew proved that Jesus had the legal right to the throne of David. He had the judicial and prophetic right to the throne (2 Sa 7:8-18; Ps 89:20-37).
The book of the genealogy of Jesus Christ,
Matthew began with the ancestry of Jesus Christ to prove his Messiahship to the Jews. Genealogies are crucial to the Jews, so this list of names is vital to prove Jesus’ Messiahship. The genealogy divides into three historical sections, each with 14 generations:
Abraham to Jesse (leading to David),
David to Josiah (the kingdom period),
Jeconiah to Joseph (the royal descent during the exile in Babylon, 586 B.C. and following).
the Son of David
Matthew presented two unconditional covenants to establish the Messiahship of Jesus to the Jews: (1) the Davidic Covenant (2 Sa 7) and (2) the Abrahamic Covenant (Ge 12-15).
the Son of Abraham
This is a reference to the Abrahamic Covenant. The Abrahamic Covenant was the launching of the Jewish people into existence. Abraham was a Gentile who became a Jew by faith (Ge 15:6; Ro 9:6-14). The founding of the Jewish nation came by regeneration, not physical generation. Abraham believed in the promise of the coming Messiah and that made him a believer. Thus, the nation of the Jewish people was founded on Abraham (Ro 9:6-14). Abraham became the pattern for salvation or justification by faith (Ro 4:1-7). Abraham was an example of someone who walked by faith (He 11:8-19; Ja 2:21-24).
People in the Old Testament, as well as people of the New Testament, were justified by faith.
Salvation is always by faith, whether in the Old Testament or the New Testament. If we add works, we negate grace. It is either one or the other, not both. Grace and works are mutually exclusive. We receive grace by belief or trust.
What then shall we say that Abraham our father has found according to the flesh? For if Abraham was justified by works, he has something to boast about, but not before God. For what does the Scripture say? “Abraham believed God, and it was accounted to him for righteousness.” Now to him who works, the wages are not counted as grace but as debt. But to him who does not work but believes on Him who justifies the ungodly, his faith is accounted for righteousness, just as David also describes the blessedness of the man to whom God imputes righteousness apart from works: “Blessed are those whose lawless deeds are forgiven, And whose sins are covered…” Ro 4:1-7