10And the disciples came and said to Him, “Why do You speak to them in parables?” 11He answered and said to them, “Because it has been given to you to know the mysteries of the kingdom of heaven, but to them it has not been given.
In 13:10-17 Jesus gave the purpose for His speaking in parables.
And the disciples came and said to Him, “Why do You speak to them in parables?”
The disciples questioned Jesus as to why He spoke in parables because that form of communication had an element of obscurity.
He answered and said to them, “Because it has been given to you to know the mysteries of the kingdom of heaven,
Jesus’ reply to the disciples’ question was that He spoke in parables to those with positive volition (believers) and not to those with negative volition (unbelievers). The disciples could know the “mysteries” of the kingdom” because they responded positively to His message.
A mystery is a truth not previously revealed. It is not something spooky or mysterious but something not revealed until Jesus disclosed it in these parables. The mystery that Jesus revealed was that the kingdom would have an interim nature before the Millennial kingdom comes. The Old Testament revealed no interim kingdom.
Matthew used the phrase “kingdom of heaven” whereas Mark, Luke, and John used the phrase “kingdom of God.” Matthew occasionally used “kingdom of God” (12:28; 19:24; 21:31, 43). The phrase “kingdom of heaven” includes both believers and unbelievers but the phrase “kingdom of God” excludes unbelievers. We can see unbelievers in the parables of the wheat and weeds, the mustard seed, and the net.
Jesus did not give parables of the “kingdom of heaven” until after Israel formally rejected Him as Messiah. The Old Testament did not give revelation about rejection of the Messiah, so Jesus now revealed what would happen as a result of that rejection. He introduced an interim kingdom between the offer of His Messiahship and His Second Coming. At the Second Coming Israel will formally accept Him as Messiah, and then He will usher in His Millennial kingdom.
but to them it has not been given.
Jesus did not reveal the interim kingdom to unbelieving Israel because they had already rejected Him as Messiah. That is why He spoke in parables. Parables serve the double use of revealing and concealing. They reveal to believers and conceal to unbelievers. God permits believers to know and does not permit unbelievers to know.
God reveals Himself to those who believe and conceals Himself to those who do not.
People who apply truth with positive volition will receive more truth. Those who desire truth can find it. God always honors those with a heart to know Him.