6 who “will render to each one according to his deeds”:
Verses 6-16 underlie all that God said to the moralist in verses 1-5 but from the viewpoint of the natural order of creation, not salvation.
Paul argued in 2:6-10 from the general system of how God governs the world. He was not speaking of principles of salvation. God rewards and punishes situations in this world; this passage is not speaking of future judgment or reward. This section has nothing to do with works salvation.
who “will render [repay] to each one according to his deeds”:
This phrase is a quotation from Psalm 62:12; Proverbs 24:12. Ultimately, we determine our own situation by the choices we make as God’s creatures.
The issue in this quotation is not salvation but how God evaluates people with objectivity, not on the basis of favoritism. He will offer no partiality to the moralist. God deals with the Christian and non-Christian alike based on principles in creation. God will “render” judgment according to those principles.
The word “render” means to pay off. God will discharge what is due. “Deeds” are works. Here the idea is anything that one does in response to God’s revelation in creation. God’s wrath is proportionate to negative volition towards God’s moral principles in revelation. We cannot plead extenuating circumstances before God because He will measure the actuality of whether we accept His principles of creation or not.
Notice that God will not judge man on account of his morality but “according to his deeds” of positive volition toward revelation. The context deals with God’s justice. Salvation is not involved in this phrase but simply the parameters of God’s justice. God is a “rewarder of them that diligently seek him” (He 11:6). God will judge people according to the light they have received regarding the moral principles in creation.
There is no special dispensation for any who violate God’s principles of creation.
God is not partial to anyone. He will judge the moral and the immoral alike. He uses the same principle of judgment for all.
Negative volition leads to self-justification. Non-Christians will offer any explanation to explain away rejection of clear revelation from God. They want to fault God for His creation of the world.
Jesus took the full ration of the wrath of God for us. If we choose to reject His partaking of wrath for us, then we will have to take it ourselves.
1 Pe 3:18, For Christ also suffered once for sins, the just for the unjust, that He might bring us to God, being put to death in the flesh but made alive by the Spirit,