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Read Introduction to Romans


9 tribulation and anguish, on every soul of man who does evil, of the Jew first and also of the Greek;


Verses 9 and 10 repeat verses 7 and 8 with two noteworthy differences.


“Tribulation” carries the idea of distress, pressure. Those with negative volition reach a pressure point to the place of breaking down.

and anguish,

The Greek word carries the idea of a narrow place, severe confinement. This has the idea of dire calamity. People with negative orientation to God will end in calamity.

on every soul of man

This section of Scripture deals with all men: non-Christian, Christian, Jew, and Gentile. The issues in the surrounding verses deal with mankind, not the Christian versus non-Christian issue. There is judgment on all people and He will judge them the same way.

who does evil [unrighteousness],

A soul doing evil is characterized as one who does not operate according to God’s right standards in creation. The doing of the soul discloses the state of his heart. God will deal with any person who does not orient to the standards of the God of the universe.

of the Jew first and also of the Greek;

God has no regard for ethnic background in dispensing His judgment. He will exact judgment on mankind in general, including the moralist such as the Jew.


There is justice in both God’s temporal and eternal judgments.


God’s righteous standards can be seen in the nature of creation. All men can see some of those principles in creation itself; there is a revelation there if they will just look to find it.