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5 of whom are the fathers and from whom, according to the flesh, Christ came, who is over all, the eternally blessed God. Amen.


This verse continues the prerogatives of Israel that began in verse four.

5 of whom are the fathers

“Fathers” refers to leaders of Israel to whom God gave the privileges of verse four. They received the irrevocable promises (v. 29). The covenants and promises to the fathers still stand. Even though Israel as a nation rejected their Messiah, they are still beloved because of the “fathers,” such as Abraham and David.

Ro 11:28, Concerning the gospel they are enemies for your sake, but concerning the election they are beloved for the sake of the fathers.

and from whom,

The phrase “from whom, according to the flesh, Christ came, who is over all, the eternally blessed God” is climatic in this delineation of prerogatives of Israel. Out of Israel, with all of its blessings and privileges, Christ came. The Messiah came from Israel in a singular sense.

The phrase “from whom” rather than “whom” indicates that the Messiah is a descendant from Israel but also that He stands transcendent over them. Although Christ is ethnically from Israel He transcends that identity since He is God Himself.

according to the flesh,

The Messiah was born with a human body from the nation Israel; He did not come from them eternally but only temporally. He is from Israel only in terms of human descent. The Messiah was one of Israel’s privileges. It is utter irony that the very nation God granted the privilege of bringing the Messiah into the world ultimately rejected Him as Savior.

[the] Christ came,

“Christ” means Messiah. The Messiah came from Israel. He came to fulfill the unconditional promises of the Old Testament. Christ represents the fulfillment of the covenants and promises.

who is over all [neuter],

This phrase ascribes universal Lordship and sovereignty to Christ. He is supreme over “all things.”

the eternally blessed God.

Christ is proclaimed as the eternal God here. This phrase attributes to Christ complete divine status.


The word “amen” means so be it. The idea is “I believe it.” The idea that God gave the Messiah-God is cause for public assertion of belief.


Jesus is God almighty Himself.


The climax of Israel’s prerogatives is that the eternal Son of God came from their heritage. Jesus is the sovereign Son of God, “the eternally blessed God.”

Jn 1:1, 3,  1 In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God.3 All things were made through Him, and without Him nothing was made that was made.

Co 1:16-17, 16 For by Him all things were created that are in heaven and that are on earth, visible and invisible, whether thrones or dominions or principalities or powers. All things were created through Him and for Him. 17 And He is before all things, and in Him all things consist.

Since Christ is “over all,” “all things” are put under Him:

1 Co 15:27, For “He has put all things under His feet.” But when He says “all things are put under Him,it is evident that He who put all things under Him is excepted.