5 For to which of the angels did He [the Father] ever say: “You are My Son, Today I have begotten You”? And again: “I will be to Him a Father, And He shall be to Me a Son”?
Verse 5 quotes Psalm 2. This psalm speaks of insolence of rulers of nations against God and His Anointed One. They “rage” against the Anointed One. The King that God will enthrone on Mount Zion will smash these rulers with overwhelming power.
The psalm speaks of the Lord’s laughter at these rebellious kings (Ps 2:4) and rebukes them (Ps 2:5). The Lord then indicates that He will install His own King on Mount Zion. Then He proclaims that the Davidic king is His heir and that the nations of the world are His inheritance (Ps 2:7-8). The statement in this psalm—”today I have begotten you”—refers not to the physical birth of the king but to His sponsorship of the King.
Jewish literature consistently applies Psalm 2 to the Messiah. It references this psalm as the vindication of God’s people before unbelieving nations by the coming of the Messiah.
to which of the angels did He [the Father] ever say:
No angel ever had the status of the Son of God. This is an emphatic negation that the Son could be compared to angels. There is nothing in Scripture that may imply such an idea. This is a rhetorical question in order to make an assertion.
“You are My [the Father’s] Son [emphatic],
This quotation comes from Psalm 2:7, a royal psalm, which reflects a kingly coronation. It is a messianic psalm. The argument of Psalm 2 is that God adopted the Davidic king as His Son. No king of Israel completely fulfilled this psalm. However, it will be fulfilled one day by someone from David’s line.
No single angel was ever called a son of God. They are called “sons of God,” but no angel was set apart as a son to God. They were “sons” plural in the sense that they were creatures of His direct creation.
Jesus was the Son prior to creation and is the Son in the incarnation (He 5:8). The idea of this psalm is that God inducted the Son into His royal status as King of the Universe at the resurrection and exaltation. God here vindicated Jesus as Messiah and established His eternal kingdom (Ac 13:32-34; Ro 1:4). This is the Son’s enthronement.
Jesus was and is the unique Son of God
No one can compare to the Son of God—not angels, not anyone.