5 And it came to pass, on the next day, that their rulers, elders, and scribes, 6 as well as Annas the high priest, Caiaphas, John, and Alexander, and as many as were of the family of the high priest, were gathered together at Jerusalem. 7 And when they had set them in the midst, they asked, “By what power or by what name have you done this?” 8 Then Peter, filled with the Holy Spirit, said to them, “Rulers of the people and elders of Israel:
Peter and John had been in jail overnight. The Sanhedrin now hauled them into a hearing (Acts 4:5-12); the Sanhedrin was the Jewish governing body.
We find Peter’s third speech in this section, which explains the consequence of Jesus rising from the dead.
And it came to pass, on the next day, that their [Jewish] rulers, elders, and scribes,
Jewish leaders of different categories gathered in the morning to prepare for the hearing of Peter and John. The Sadducees were the leading group of the Sanhedrin. There were 71 members in the Sanhedrin, with the Pharisees in the minority. The presiding officer was the high priest. Other members were ruling priests, aristocrats, and experts in the law of Moses.
as well as Annas the high priest, Caiaphas, John, and Alexander, and as many as were of the family of the high priest, were gathered together at Jerusalem.
Verse 6 gives the specific persons assembled in Jerusalem for the legal hearing: the former high priest Annas, deposed by the Romans; his son-in-law Caiaphas, who was the current high priest (AD 18-36); two people unknown to us today, John and Alexander; and the remainder of the high-priestly family.
And when they had set them in the midst, they asked, “By what power or by what name have you done this?”
The religious leaders of Israel asked the apostles by what authority they healed the man lame from birth (Acts 3:1-10).
Then Peter, filled with the Holy Spirit,
The filling with the Holy Spirit in the book of Acts denotes empowerment of ministry (Acts 4:31).
said to them, “Rulers of the people and elders of Israel:
Peter here began to address the rulers over the Jewish leaders of the nation, the Sanhedrin. The Sadducees were the prevailing party at this time.
The prerequisite for any ministry service is to be filled with the Spirit.
It is important to respond to challenges against our faith when we are filled with the Spirit (Lu 12:11-12, Eph 5:18). All Christian ministry rests on the person speaking on behalf of Christianity to be Spirit controlled. To be governed by the Spirit is the same as yielding to the Spirit. Yielding to the Spirit is to depend on His resources, not our own.