From Romans 1:3-4
concerning His Son Jesus Christ our Lord, who was born of the seed of David according to the flesh, 4 and declared to be the Son of God with power according to the Spirit of holiness, by the resurrection from the dead.
Jesus was both God (Lord) and man. The title “Son” shows the unique relationship between the Father and Christ as the Son. This title places Him within the Trinity. This passage reflects God’s estimate of His Son.
who was born of the seed of David according to the flesh, Christ was not only God but also genuine humanity. This phrase demonstrates the weakness of Jesus’ earthly life. Jesus entered into time and space by human birth. We call this His “humiliation.” He was born in the linage of David. He was a true human being. This verse declares the humanity of Christ. He was more than human as we will see in the next verse.
Jesus was born into the royal family of David. This was affirmation of Jesus as Messiah. The words “was born” come from a term meaning to come into being. The idea is that He became something He was not previously. These words imply prior existence. They imply transition from one state to another. The Son of God became the Son of Man without divesting Himself of His deity. Jesus at His birth came into a new condition—a member of the human race. Previously He was eternal God trillions of years previously ad infinitum but at His birth He became a human being. John uses this term in 1:14 “And the Word became flesh and dwelt among us, and we beheld His glory, the glory as of the only begotten of the Father, full of grace and truth.”
“Of the seed of David” means that Jesus had a legal mother and father. He had a real mother but not a real father. Mary was a descendant of David through Solomon’s younger brother Nathan.
according to the flesh, “Flesh” refers to the physical body of Christ. “Seed” refers to the genealogy of Jesus. His genealogy harks back to David in ancestry.
God portrays the gospel by both a Person and His work. This Person from eternity was born of a Jewish family of royal lineage. He was also God almighty. If we diminish either His deity or his humanity we damage the gospel. We value Jesus’ work by His person. If I were to expound on physics, my expostulation would be of little value for I know very little about physics. Jesus’ credentials as Savior rest on His person.
We must be careful not to confound either the humanity or the deity of Christ. We cannot mix the two. They stand as genuinely separate categories. Deity is not humanity nor is humanity deity. However, the same Person exists in both the humanity of Christ and the deity of Christ. Christ is one in person.
The reason Jesus came as man was to die with his body for our sins. He became the true mediator between God and man. As man he represents man and as God he represents God in the mediating process. 1 Ti 2: 5 “For there is one God and one Mediator between God and men, the Man Christ Jesus,”
1:3 concerning His Son Jesus Christ our Lord, The Scriptures are about Jesus Christ our Lord. They are Christ-centered. The gospel is about the person and work of Jesus. The 1word “concerning” means around. This is the Greek word peri (around) from where we find part of the English words “perimeter” and “periphery.” The gospel not only concerns Jesus Christ but it surrounds Him. It all about Him; He is the very substance of the gospel.
1:4 and declared to be the Son of God, The title “Son of God” harks back to Psalm 2:7. This term speaks of the deity of Christ.
The word “declared” means to mark out the boundaries or the limits of something. The word “declared” carries the idea of determine, define, appoint. We get our English word “horizon” from the Greek term. A horizon marks boundaries between earth and sky. The Son of God was eternally God but God declared Him openly to be so to men. Jesus became something He was not before as man but God declared His deity during Jesus’ earthly life. His birth as a man required this declaration. Thus, God separated the deity and the humanity of Christ. The resurrection defines the Son of God.
Jesus is both God and man in one person. The humanity of Christ is not the deity and the deity is not the humanity of Christ. Christ was both true humanity and undiminished deity in one person forever. Verse three teaches Jesus’ humanity and verse four teaches the deity of the Son of God.