5 For to which of the angels did He [the Father] ever say: “You are My Son, Today I have begotten You”? And again: “I will be to Him a Father, And He shall be to Me a Son”?
Today I [emphatic] have begotten You”?
Begetting the Son “today” means the Father accepted the Son to sit at His right hand (He 1:3). Christ’s exaltation presupposes His deity. No angel ever held this prerogative.
From the perspective of the writer of Hebrews, the “today” is the resurrection (Ac 13:32-33). Romans 1:4 asserts that Jesus was “declared” or constituted the Son of God with power by the resurrection from the dead. The point of time (aorist) in that passage was the resurrection. Psalm 2 points to Easter.
The “have begotten” by the Father is the time of the appointment of His Son to the position to be His “heir” with the right to rule. This is similar to Jacob appointing Joseph to be his heir. The Father took this action at the time of the resurrection. Acts 13:33 indicates that Psalm 2:7 was fulfilled by the resurrection of Jesus from the dead. Only the Son can have this authority.
The Son was always in eternity past the Son of the Father; however, in this passage the begetting “today” by the Father is a special begetting. It is His entering into the full prerogatives of His Sonship when He sat down at the Father’s right hand.
“Begotten” may refer to the coming coronation of Jesus as King. He will be enthroned at His exaltation.
“Begotten” here does not refer to the eternality of the Son or to the incarnation of the Son. The idea is that of the Father establishing an official Son relationship. Psalm 2 was written to celebrate the accession or coronation of the King. The idea is that the Father begot Christ to kingly dignity. The begetting is not to life but to an office. This declaration was substantiated by the resurrection of the Son (Ro 1:4; Ac 13:33).
In conclusion, the “begotten” does not refer to the essential deity of the Son but to His Messiahship in the incarnation. The Father addresses the Son in time, not eternity. God fulfilled this promise in Acts 13:33. He did this by the incarnation and manifestation of the Messiah to Israel in time, not eternity.
“Begotten” cannot refer to bringing the Son into existence since the context deals with the exaltation of the Son to the Father’s right hand. He has already been praised as the agent of creation (He 1:2) and later will be praised as its creator (He 1:10). He existed prior to creation itself. The New Testament church understood Psalm 2:7 as referring to the Son’s induction into His position as King of the Universe at the resurrection and exaltation (Acts 13:32-34; Ro 1:4)
The Son entered the full prerogatives of His Messiahship at His resurrection and glorification.
Although Christ has always been God’s eternal Son in His divine essence, He also became the Son who was prophesied to reign over David’s dynasty. The Father gave Him authorization to rule after His ascension (Ps 2:8).
The Father never addressed an angel as His Son. Angels are called “sons of God” but never the “Son of God” (Job 1:6; Ps 89:6). Psalm 2 views that David’s heir will be the Messiah. He will fulfill the promises of the chapter. The promised King will be the Father’s “Son.” Jesus fulfilled this psalm in every point.