5 For to which of the angels did He ever say: “You are My Son, Today I have begotten You”? And again: “I will be to Him a Father, And He shall be to Me a Son”?
The context for the Old Testament quotes in this verse relates to a royal heir’s endorsement to rule by God.
In the quotation from 2 Samuel 7, Nathan spoke to David in verses 4-17. God made a proclamation in the parallel passage, 1 Chronicles 17:13-14, about a future heir of David who will rule forever. David himself could not rule because there was an incongruity for a man of war to build the house of God. However, at a future time God will grant David’s progeny a dynasty (2 Sa 7:12-17). God will establish that Son’s kingdom irrevocably. God will establish a kingdom at that time and it will be established forever (2 Sa 7:12-13).
In 1 Chronicles 17:13 there is no correction of the person who will inherit this kingdom, as there was in 2 Samuel.
It is important to note that the next Old Testament text (2 Samuel 7:14 or 1 Chronicles 17:13) was written prior to Psalm 2:4. The psalm echoes the historical passage.
The words “and again” connect the next quotation with the previous quote. The Father is speaking about the Son and not to Him here. The “and” here shows that the reference is to the mediatorial glory of Christ and not His essential glory as God.
The quotation of 2 Samuel 7:14 reinforces the idea of Sonship. There is a verbal analogy between this passage and Psalm 2:7. Both make proclamations about the Son as Messiah on the throne of the universe (He 1:3; Ps 110:1).
“I will be to Him a Father, And He shall be to Me a Son”?
This second quotation is from 1 Chronicles 17:13 or 2 Samuel 7:14 (LXX). The context of this chapter was David’s desire to build a house for Jehovah, but Nathan the prophet informed David that a son of his would build the house of the Lord (Solomon). However, we now know that His ultimate “son” is Christ (Mt 1:1). Solomon built the temple but the Son’s mediatorial work was where the real work was done. Luke 1:32-33 and John 7:42 show that 2 Samuel 7:14 was applied to Jesus the Messiah.
The phrase “I will be a Father” refers to the Father’s owning His Son, Jesus Christ, as the Messiah in time.
2 Samuel 7:14 is a messianic prediction. It had a partial fulfillment in Solomon, but the ultimate fulfillment is in the Messiahship of Christ. The context of this passage is the Davidic Covenant. God affirmed that there will be a continual relationship between Himself and David’s descendant. That descendant will fulfill the Covenant. Jesus was that descendant. Jesus, David’s greater Son, is the one in whom all the messianic promises would be fulfilled.
The lack of the definite “the” before “Son” does not imply an indefinite son but attributes a unique relationship between the Father and Son. The analogy is that God will be like a father to a son.
The begetting by the Father was a legal pronouncement of the Messiah’s authorized right to inherit all creation.
It is important to understand legal procedure in the culture of Israel at that time. The bestowal of sonship rights to a legal heir was done by a legal pronouncement. This was done by naming of an heir in a will.
The Father did this to the Son at the point of the resurrection. Jesus at that time had the legal right to inherit creation from the Father. He will not take possession of that inheritance until His Second Coming.
The Son has always been the eternal Son of God but “Son” in this context refers to the Messiah, the Davidic heir, who will have dominion over the entire earth (Ps 2:8).
Angels are nothing but messengers and ministers; only Christ is the Son to the Father. Angels are created but the Son is eternal God. He had a unique relationship to the Father that no other creature ever had.
Revelation 12:5; 19:15 apply Psalm 2 to Jesus. The unique “today” is that occasion when the Father elevated the Son to the status as King, King Jesus, King of the world. He will await unto His Second Coming to formally be inaugurated with this kingdom.
The idea that Solomon built a temple for the ark did not exhaust the prophecy of David’s ancestors building the temple. The later prophets looked forward to the son who would do this (Isa 9:6f; Mic 5:2-4; Zech 9:9).