10 For it was fitting for Him, for whom are all things and by whom are all things, in bringing many sons to glory, to make the captain of their salvation perfect through sufferings.
The argument of Hebrews addresses the problem of Jews who decided for Christ but were about to revert to Old Testament worship. Verses 10–18 explain how Jesus’ incarnation would fulfill the Levitical sacrifices; there was no need to go back to the type when the Antitype has fulfilled the sacrifices.
Verses 10–18 show the Son’s solidarity with human beings. The readers of Hebrews will see the future glory of the Messiah by a quotation from Psalm 8. Believers in seeing this will appreciate their own future glory.
The word “for” harks back to the previous verse—the purpose of the incarnation was to suffer death in a human body (He 2:9). Jesus suffered the agony of death for everyone. We should have suffered that death, but He took our place. This was the “grace of God” in verse 9.
it was fitting [proper] for Him [the Father],
What God did through Jesus’ crucifixion was a highly becoming plan. The Jews did not view a suffering Messiah very highly; it was a stumbling block to them (1 Co 1:23). From God’s point of view there was nothing derogatory about it. In the Father’s view, it was completely appropriate because the plan of salvation was consistent with His character. It was true to His righteousness, justice, and grace.
The cross of Christ was an act worthy of God. The cross vindicated God’s righteousness. It was fitting that God the Father demanded that Jesus pay the penalty for sins. Only the shedding of the blood of Christ could satisfy God’s righteousness. This plan came out of the fundamental constitution of the nature of God. An absolute God cannot tolerate sin in any way. His character demanded that violation of His righteousness be met by the blood of Christ.
Jesus’ death on the cross was consistent with God’s righteousness. The reason for His death was to make payment for the penalty of sin. In this, God was satisfied with not exercising a penalty on those who commit sin.
for [because of] whom [God] are all things
Creation, or the universe of things, was created by God for His own glory (Ro 11:36). God is the reason the sum total of all things in the universe were created. This is the ultimate purpose for creation. It is on His account that all things exist.
The words “all things” recall verse 8. Mankind is to have dominion over all things in creation. Jesus in His humanity will gain dominion rights over creation, and those who believe in Him will be served by angels (He 1:14).
and by whom are all things,
God providentially sustains all creation. He is the Agent of creation; He brought all things into being and maintains their existence.
God is the ultimate purpose for and efficient cause of all things.
Since in the Judeo-Christian worldview everything in creation pivots on the character of God, He is the purpose and means of all things (Ro 11:36; Re 4:11; Neh 9:6). The death of Christ was designed to meet the demands of God’s character. Since He is absolute, He cannot tolerate any sin of any kind and of any amount; the issue of sin must be addressed completely and adequately. God sent His Son to pay fully, completely, and sufficiently for all sin of all time. He resolved the sin issue in the fullest sense. Those who believe are forgiven of their sins past, present, and future. His death was completely appropriate in God’s eyes.