10 For this is the covenant that I will make with the house of Israel after those days, says the Lord: I will put My laws in their mind and write them on their hearts; and I will be their God, and they shall be My people. 11 None of them shall teach his neighbor, and none his brother, saying, ‘Know the Lord,’ for all shall know Me, from the least of them to the greatest of them.
Verses 10–12 describe the superior promises and accomplishments of the new covenant:
—an inclination to apply what God said
—a firm relationship with God
—knowledge of God
—forgiveness of sins
For this is the covenant that I will make with the house of Israel after those days, says the Lord:
This verse begins to describe the new covenant with the nation Israel.
I will put My laws in their mind and write them on their hearts;
The Mosaic Covenant was written on stone but the second or new covenant will be written on “hearts.” The inauguration of the new covenant was entirely the initiative of God, making it distinct from the first covenant. This covenant will not rest on the performance of people but on God Himself working on the hearts of believers.
and I will be their God, and they shall be My people.
Israel’s God will be personal with His people.
None of them shall teach his neighbor, and none his brother,
In the Millennium there will be no need for the believer to teach believer because all will know Him in the age where Christ will be King Jesus. The Greek in these words is emphatic negation; this will definitely not happen.
This refers to Jeremiah 31:34 specifically.
‘Know the Lord,’ for all shall know Me, from the least of them to the greatest of them.
In the future Millennium, the entire nation will know God because they will not have any need of any intermediation on their behalf. They will possess direct relationship with God. It will not be necessary to share the gospel because everyone will be a believer. In that age knowledge will not be the exclusive possession of priests but for the general population as well.
Not only are Christians saved by grace, but we are sustained by grace.
The new covenant gives people desire to fellowship with God and the power to do His will. The new covenant functions under an internal principle, not external laws. Under the new, the dynamics are relational. Under this new capacity, people will both desire and have the capacity to do God’s will (Php 2:12, 13).
The law defined God’s character and standards, but it did not give the power to fulfill the law. The law was external, but the principle of grace is internal (2 Co 3:1–3; 18). Grace transforms the heart. We are not only saved by grace, but we are also sustained by grace.